Anatomy

Departmental Objectives

At the end of the Anatomy course, the students should be able to:

  • mention, identify, show, draw and describe the structural components of the body responsible for carrying out normal body functions;
  • use the above knowledge to understand, correlate and appreciate the other pre- clinical, para-clinical and clinical medical subjects;
  • apply the knowledge of Anatomy with the knowledge of other medical subjects to provide optimum health services in the country and abroad.

List of Competencies to acquire :

  • Adequate knowledge of the structural components of the body & correlate it with normal body functions.
  • Using  the  above  knowledge  to  understand,  correlate  and  appreciate  the  other subjects to be taught in the para-clinical and clinical medical courses.
  • Applying  the  knowledge  of  Anatomy  with  the  knowledge  of  other  medical subjects to provide optimum health services in the country and abroad.

Distribution of teaching – learning hours

Lecture Tutorial Practical (Histology) Demons tration +Dissectio n +Card exam Total Teaching hours Integrat ed teaching in for phase I Formative Exam Summative exam
Preparat ory leave Exam time Preparato ry leave Exam time
115 hrs 53hrs 52 hrs 310hrs 530hrs 30 hrs 21+14= 35 days 42 days 30days 30 days
(Time for exam. preparatory leave and formative & summative assessment is common for all subjects of the phase )

Teaching – learning methods, teaching aids and evaluation

Teaching Methods   Teaching aids   In course evaluation
Large group Small group Self learning
  Lecture Integrated teaching   Tutorial Practical Demonstration   Self-study & self-assessment Computer / laptop & Multimedia OHP, Transparency & Transparency marker White board & different colour white board markers Black  board  &  white  and  coloured chalks Cadavers, prosected parts, bones, viscera Slide and slide projector Microscope   Item ExaminationCard Final Examination (written/oral + practical)Term Final Examination (written, oral+ practical)

Related Equipments: Flip Chart, Photograph, Model, X-ray films (CT scan and other imaging films), View box, Diagram, Preserved specimens, Living body for surface marking, Simulation.

1st  Professional Examination:

Marks distribution of Assessment of Anatomy Total marks – 500

  • Written=200 (Formative 20+MCQ 40+SAQ140)
  • SOE=150
  • Practical=150

Learning Objectives and Course Contents in Anatomy

Learning Objectives Contents Teaching  hours Total : 12 hrs
  General Anatomy Student will be able to define anatomy, explain the subdivisions of anatomydescribe the anatomical terminology, planes & positions   define bone. Describe the composition ,blood supply, functions & ossification of bones.   describe composition characteristics, location and functions of different types of cartilages.define & classify joints, the characters, stability & movements of joints and correlate with the clinical conditions   classify muscles, their properties and functions and also classify skeletal muscle morphologically & functionally   define & classify blood vessels,describe the systemic, portal & pulmonary circulation.describe different types of vascular anastomosis with their functional & clinical implications.describe components ,functions & the general plan of lymphatic drainage of the whole body.classify & describe the functions of lymphoid organs   CORE : Definition, subdivisions of Anatomy and its importance in the study of medicine.Anatomical terminology and anatomical planes & positions.Skeletal system- Bones – classification, composition, functions, parts of a developing long bone ,blood supply, periosteum & endosteum. Ossification-definition, centres, processes. Factors affecting growth of bone..Cartilages- composition, types , characters ,locations and functionsJoint: classification, characteristics of each type & movements, stability of the joints. Clinical conditions associated with joints .General plan of blood supply & nerve supply of joints. Muscular system, classification, characteristics and functions . Skeletal muscle -classification   Blood vascular system: component parts. General plan. Structure, classification Differences between different types of vessel. Nutrition & innervations of vessels Circulation : types, characteristic features of each type   Lymph vascular system : components, characteristic features of lymph capillaries .Differences with blood capillary .Lymphoid organs: classification & functions TERM I   01 hr   01 hr   03 hrs       hr   hrs   hr       hrs           01 hr
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours
Student will be able to Describe the basic facts on origin of life, evolution of life and animal kingdom. Additional: Origin of life on earth.Evolution of life on earth.The animal kingdom  
Cell Biology Student should be able to: define and describe the human cell & its constituents ,structure & functions of cell membrane.describe the structure & functions of nucleusdescribe the structure & functions of organelles & inclusionsdescribe the features of different types of cells: protein secreting, ion transporting, steroid secreting, mucus secreting, antibody producing cell.       Human Genetics Students will be able to: define terms related to human genetics   describe the different basic features of chromosomes   explain structure, function, basis of protein synthesis of DNA & RNAdefine allele homozygous, Heterozygous karyotypingexplain Mendel’s Law of inheritance & Lyon’s hypothesis CORE: Human Cell-Basic organization, types constituents, cell membrane   nucleus   cytoplasm & organelles and inclusions   Functional correlation of different types of cell with their particular-nuclear, cytoplasmic, membrane and surface feature   CORE: Terms & definitions: Gene, Gene locus, genome, genotype, phenotype, genetic trait etc. Chromosomes: Structure, types, bio-chemical nature, & chromosomal disordersDNA and RNA: Structure, function, basis of protein synthesisAllele , homozygous, Heterozygous Karyotyping Additional: Mendels law of inheritance & Lyon’s hypothesisOutline of recent advances in GeneticsPrinciples of genetic engineeringPrinciples of cloning Total:06 hrs. TERM I 02 hrs   hr   hrs     01hr   Total: 04 hrs TERM I 01hr   01 hrs   01 hrs   01 hr
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours Total :12 hours
  General Histology Student should be able to:   define and classify the basic tissues in the bodydescribe the different types, characters, distribution and the functions of epithelial tissue describe the cell Surface specialization & Junctional complexes.describe the composition, characters, distribution and the functions of connective tissue. Describe the structure & functions of different types of connective tissue cells       describe the histological structures of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & skeletal muscle. Describe the mechanism of muscle contraction.     describe the structure & functions of neuron & neuroglia   General Histology Basic tissues: Definition, Classification, Components, Characters, Distribution and Functions of Epithelium -Surface epithelium -glandular epithelium   Connective tissueProperspecial     Muscular tissue -smooth -cardiac -skeletal   Nervous tissue -neurons -neuroglia   TERM I       04hrs       04 hrs     TERM II   02 hrs     TERM III   02 hrs
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours Total 18 hrs
  Systemic Histology: Students will be able to describe the histological structures of different parts of body system   Systemic Histology : histological structures of   Respiratory systemVascular system     Lymphoid organsDigestive system & associated GlandsExocrine glands ( salivary )Urinary systemEndocrine glandsMale reproductive systemFemale reproductive system   Integumentary systemSpecial sense organs     TERM I 01 hr hr   TERM II hrshrshrhr 02 hrs 02 hrs 02 hrs   TERM III 01 hr 01 hr
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours Total 18hrs
General Embryology Students will be able to: define terms related to embryologyexplain the significance of study of embryologyexplain proliferation, growth, differentiation, inductors, evocators and organiser   describe different types of cell divisiondescribe chromosomal changes during cell division with anomaliesdescribe oogenesis and spermatogenesisdescribe the process of fertilizationdescribe the events of 1st week of development.describe the events2nd  week of development.   describe the events 3rd week of development.describe the development & derivatives of ectoderm, mesoderm & endoderm.   explain the development of foetal membranesexplain the development of twins & their types.describe the causes & types of congenital anomalies   explain the process of human evocationdescribe the Molecular regulation & cell signaling pathways CORE:   Introduction: Terms and Definition Significance of study of embryology Basic process of development : proliferation, growth, differentiation, inductors, evocators and organizer Cell division: Types   Gametogenesis and maturation of Germ cells.     Fertilization: Events, factors influencing the fertilisation Progress in 1st week of developmentProgress in 2nd week of development.   Progress in 3rd week of development.Derivatives of germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm & endoderm.     Foetal membranes : Placenta, Chorion, Amnion, Umbilical cord, Yolk sac etc. Twins Teratology Additional: Human EvolutionConcepts of medical biotechnology in relation to embryologyMolecular regulation &cell signaling TERM I   01 hr       hr       hrs     02 hrs   02 hrs   02 hr   02 hrs   01 hr   TERM II   03 hrs   02 hrs
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours Total 24 hrs
  Systemic Developmental Anatomy Student will be able to: describe the process of development of different body systemdescribe the developmental anomalies of different body system mention general outline of development of: Thoracic duct, Cysterna chyli, Inferior Vena Cava, Superior Vena Cava, Portal Vein, Brachiocephalic veins, & Renal veins.   CORE: Development and their Anomalies of Skeletal system & vertebral column Muscular systemUpper and lower limbDigestive system with associated glandsRespiratory systemCardiovascular System & aortic archesCoelomic cavity & the diaphragmSkin & mammary glandUrinary systemMale and female Reproduction system   Pituitary & suprarenal glandFace & neck & their associated organsNervous SystemEye & Ear   Additional: Development of Lymphatic SystemVascular System TERM II     02 hrs   01 hr 03 hrs 01 hr 03 hrs 01 hr hrhrshrs TERM III   01 hr 03 hrs 02 hrs 01 hr
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours Total 21 hrs
  Neuroanatomy Students will be able to: classify nervous system. Describe composition of grey matter and white matterexplain the structure, process of myelination, degeneration & regeneration of  nerve fibresdefine & classify synapse, receptors .describe the structure & functions of receptor & synapse define autonomic nervous system, describe the different parts of autonomic nervous system .nerve plexuses & ganglia Pia, arachnoid and dura mater Extension, folds, spaces, nerve supply & blood supply explain blood brain & blood CSF barrier   describe the formation, composition, circulation, absorption & functions of CSFdescribe the ventricles of braindescribe the different lobes, Gyri, sulci and important functional areas with effects of lesion .Explain the mode of blood supply of cerebrum CORE:   Introduction to Nervous system,       Nerve fibres, : structure classifications & functions, myelination degeneration, regeneration   Receptors : structure classifications location & functionsSynapse : structure classifications & functions       Autonomic nervous system, autonomic nerve plexuses & ganglia Coverings of brain and spinal cord, Pia, arachnoid and dura mater Extension, folds, spaces, nerve supply &  blood supply Barriers of brainCerebrospinal fluid (CSF)   Ventricles of brain     Motor system Cerebrum: Lobes: gyri, sulci Functional Areas ,Blood supply TERM I 01 hr     TERM III   01hr     01 hrs   TERM I & TERM II   02 hrs   TERM III     02 hrs                           02 hrs
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours
Neuroanatomy Students will be able to: describe Pyramidal & extrapyramidal system & effects of their lesiondescribe functional lobes, nuclei, peduncles, blood supply, functions & clinical conditions of cerebellumdescribe location,, parts, blood supply, functions & clinical conditions of basal nucleiclassify cranial nerves, explain functional components and cranial nerve nuclei, and describe the course of III, IV,V,VI,VII, IX, X, XI, XII cranial nerves .   explain & define dermatome & axial linedescribe the ascending tracts with effects of lesionsdescribe the thalamus, hypothalamusexplain functional components nuclei, and course of I, II,VIII, cranial nerves . Explain the smell, visual & auditory pathwaydescribe the length, extension, enlargements sections of spinal cord at different leveldescribe the parts , blood supply and significance of brain stem.describe the cross sections of midbrain , pons & medulla oblongata at different level   describe the arrangement & functions reticular formationdescribe the parts & functions of limbic system CORE:   Pyramidal & extrapyramidal systemCerebellum: parts , functions , blood supply, clinical conditions     Basal nuclei : locations, parts , functions artery supply & clinical conditions     Motor & mixed cranial nerves     Sensory system: Dermatome & axial lineAscending tracts of spinal cord   Diencephalon : parts & functions   Sensory cranial nerves & Smell, visual & auditory pathway   Spinal Cord: Length, extension, Enlargement ,Blood supply, Cross-sections at different level   Brain stem : blood supply, cross sections at different levels Reticular formationLimbic system TERM III   02 hrs   01 hr     hr       hr     01hr     01 hr   hr   hrs     01hr
  Learning Objectives   Contents   Teaching hours
  Living (surface) Anatomy Students will be able to:   locate and count ribs and costal cartilagesdraw and demonstrate on the surface of the body important anatomical points and structures of Thorax                     Students will be able to: draw and demonstrate on the surface of the body important anatomical points and structures of Superior extremity   Thorax CORE: Counting of ribs and costal cartilages   Heart- apex and bordersLung-borders and apex,Trachea & BronchiEsophagusTriangle of auscultationJugular notchSternal angleArea of Superficial Cardiac dullness Common carotid and subclavian artery Internal thoracic artery   Superior extremity CORE Nerves: Radial, Ulnar, Median nerve, Axillary nerveArteries: Brachial, Radial ,Ulnar artery, Superficial and deep palmar archVeins: cephalic, basilic & Median cubital veinFlexor retinaculumAnatomical snuff boxMedial humeral epicondyle     06 hrs.                                   04 hrs.
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours
  Living (surface) Anatomy Students will be able to: locate, demonstrate on the surface of the body the different anatomical planes and land marksdraw, demonstrate on the surface of the body the nine regions of the abdomendraw and indicate inguinal canal on the surface of the bodydraw and demonstrate on the surface of the body Important anatomical points, borders and parts of important organs of abdomen             Students will be able to: locate and demonstrate on surface of the body important points and structures of inferior extremity   CORE: Abdomen Trans-pyloric plane, Trans tubercular plane, Subcostal plane, mid clavicular lineRegions of abdomen   Superficial & deep inguinal ring. Inguinal canalAbdominal aorta & inferior vena cavaStomach, Duodenum, Pancreas, Liver, Gall bladder, Bile duct , spleen, Kidney from back & Mac Burney’s point. Transverse colon, ureter from front and back, celiac trunk , splenic artery, Root of the mesentery. Inferior extremity Common peroneal nerve, Tibial nervePopliteal arteryAnterior & posterior tibial arteryArteria dorsalis pedisGreat Saphenous veinSmall Saphenous veinAdductor tubercleLateral and Medial MalleolusGreater trochanter of femurAnterior superior iliac spine Additional Femoral nerve, sural nerve, Medial and lateral plantar artery, plantar arch.     6 hrs.                             4 hrs.
  Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
  Students will be able to: draw and demonstrate on the surface of the body important anatomical points and structures of Head and Neck   Head and neck Facial artery , Facial veinInternal jugular vein, External jugular veinCommon Carotid artery & its bifurcationFacial Nerve & their branchesvagus nerve in the neckParotid gland and its ductFrontal and maxillary air sinusesThyroid glandTip of the coracoid processInferior angle of scapulaTip of the 7th cervical spine Additional: Pterion, lambdaMiddle meningeal artery     04 hrs.
    Learning Objectives     Contents   Teaching hours
  Anatomy of Radiology & Images Students will be able to:   describe Radio opaque structures Radio-lucent structuresidentification and location of normal structures by: Radiography   CORE   Radio opaque structures Radio-lucent structures Plain X-ray of the -chest PA view -abdomen AP view -pelvis AP view -arm including proximal & distal joints AP & lateral view -forearm including proximal & distal joints AP & lateral view -hand including proximal & distal joints -thigh including proximal & distal joints AP & lateral view -leg including proximal & distal joints AP & lateral view -foot including proximal & distal joints AP & lateral view -head & neck (cervical spine) AP & lateral view -Paranasal sinuses OM view   Additional: Common normal Ultrasonographs, Isotope scan,Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI), CT ScanCoronary Angiograph  
  Learning Objectives   Contents   Teaching hours
    Clinical Anatomy Students will be able to: describe the anatomical basis of clinical disorder of thorax, abdomen.   Thorax Pleurisy / Pleural effusionPneumothoraxCoronary artery diseasePericarditis/ pericardial effusionFlail chestParalysis of the diaphragm Abdomen Portal vein obstructionHydroceleHerniaPeritonitis, ascitisGastric ulcerDuodenal ulcerGall stone/cholecystitisappendicitisBenign hyperplasia of prostate, Prostatic cancerCystoceleStress incontinenceRupture urethraSalphingitisEctopic pregnancyProlapse of uterus / vaginaHaemorrhoidsUndescended testisPsoas abscessIschiorectal abscess  
Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
    Clinical Anatomy Students will be able to: describe the anatomical basis of clinical disorder of Head & Neck, CNS & Extremities Head & Neck Fracture of the skull bonesScalp injuryPiriform fossa and foreign bodyOtitis mediaSinusitisEpistaxisTonsilitisSwelling of thyroid glandMumpsCavernous vein thrombosisCervical rib CNS & Eyeball Injury to brain /eye ball / spinal cord/cranial nervesMeningitisHydrocephalusCerebral ischaemiaintracranial haemorrhage (extradural,subarachnoid, cerebral) papilledema Horner syndrome Superior extremity Dislocation of shoulder jointBrachial plexus & injury to its nervesCarpal tunnel syndromeColle’s fractureBreast abscess & breast cancer Inferior extremity Varicose veinDeep vein thrombosisNerve injuryDislocation of hip jointRupture of menisci & cruciate ligament,BursitisDeformities of foot     .
  Learning Objectives   Contents Teaching hours
Clinical Anatomy Students will be able to: describe the anatomical basis for selection of arteries ,veins & Muscles of clinical importance.   demonstrate the different auscultatory areas         describe the anatomical basis for clinical procedure of Thorax, Abdomen, Head & Neck , CNS &Eyeball Extremities   Arterial pulsationIntravenous injectionsIntramuscular injection   Apex beat, mitral ,tricuspid, aortic & pulmonary areas         Sternal puncturePleural effusionpericardial effusionCoronary angiogramBronchoscopyLaryngoscopyParacentesis /peritoneal dialysisLiver abscessVasectomyTubal ligationNasogastric intubationPalpation of Cervical lymph nodeLumbar punctureEpidural/spinal anaesthesiaPudendal blockFundoscopy  

Regional Anatomy : THORAX CARD (DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
Students will be able to: demonstrate the boundary & identify the contents of thoracic wall, thoracic cavity mediastinum & inter costal spaceidentify & demonstrate the gross features of bones & joints of thoraxdescribe the formation , course ,branches & distribution of Spinal nerve / intercostal nerveidentify & demonstrate the surfaces, borders, parts, chambers- including structures within the chambers of the heartexplain blood supply & nerve supply of heartidentify & demonstrate the layers of pericardium   identify & demonstrate the surfaces, borders, fissures, lobes, hilus & bronchopulmonary units of the lungidentify & demonstrate the layers & parts of pleura.explain the blood supply, lymphatic drainage & nerve supply of lung & pleura.identify & demonstrate the trachea bronchus & bronchial tree.explain blood supply & nerve supply of trachea & bronchial tree.explain the blood supply, nerve supply & lymphatic drainage of thoracic wall.identify & demonstrate the surfaces, parts openings, attachments of the diaphragm.explain the blood supply & nerve supply of the diaphragm.explain the significance of the orifices of the diaphragm.explain & demonstrate the extension ,parts ,relations & constrictions of oesophagusexplain the blood supply, lymphatic drainage & nerve supply of the oesophagus.   correlate clinical conditions associated with structures of thorax (Heart with its vessels, lung, trachea, bronchus, bronchial tree & the Diaphragm)   Thoracic wall formation, thoracic cavity, intercostal space and mediastinum.Bones and joints of the thoraxSpinal nerve / intercostal nerve   Heart with pericardium.         Lung with pleura, trachea and bronchus.         Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics of the thorax.   The diaphragm.     oesophagus     Clinical Anatomy   49 hrs.

Regional Anatomy: SUPERIOR EXTREMITY CARD (DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
  Students will be able to: identify & demonstrate muscles, vessels, nerves of pectoral region including attachment of musclesdescribe the parts of mammary gland & its blood supply, lymphatic drainage & nerve supplydemonstrate the boundary & identify the contents of axilla, Quadrangular & triangular spaces, & cubital fossa demonstrate the attachments of muscles, and identify vessels, nerves, lymphatics & lymph nodes of different parts of superior extremity   demonstrate the gross features of bones & joints of superior extremity and muscles acting on joints   correlate clinical conditions associated with structures (nerves, vessels, bones, joints) of superior extremity     Pectoral region with mammary gland   AxillaSuperficial dissection of the upper limb, back and scapular region including quadrangular & triangular space Front of the arm , forearm and palm Back of the arm, forearm and dorsum of the handBlood supply, lymphatic drainage, cutaneous innervation & dermatome of superior extremityBones & joints of the upper limbRemoval of the limbClinical Anatomy   42 hrs.

Regional Anatomy: ABDOMEN CARD (DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Learning Objectives   Contents   Teaching hours
  Students will be able to: demonstrate the different layers of anterior abdominal wall & hernial regionexplain clinical types of herniademonstrate the different parts of GI Tract & its peritoniumexplain their mode of blood supply, lymphatic drainage & nerve supplydemonstrate the features of liver, pancreas, supra renal gland & different parts of biliary systemexplain blood supply, lymphatic drainage & nerve supply of them.demonstrate the features of kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, & urethraexplain their blood supply, lymphatic drainage & nerve supplydemonstrate the features of different parts of male & female reproductive system.explain their blood supply, lymphatic drainage & nerve supply.demonstrate the muscles and identify the vessels, nerves & lymphatics of posterior abdominal walldemonstrate the parts and identify the contents of the pelvisdifferentiate between male & female pelvisdemonstrate the gross features & joints of lumbar vertebra & bony pelvis and muscles acting on jointscorrelate with clinical conditions associated with different organs of the abdomen     Anterior wall of the abdomen with hernial region.Stomach, abdominal part of the oesophagus; coeliac artery.Duodenum, pancreas and spleen.The mesentery and mesenteric vessels, jejunum and ileum.Large intestine. rectum &anal canalLiver with the biliary appartus including gall bladder; portal vein.Kidney, suprarenal gland and ureter.Muscles, blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall.Muscles, blood vessels lymphatics, nerves and the pelvis; urinary bladder.Ovary, uterus, uterine tube, female external organs and perineum.Vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate and male external genital organs.Lumbar vertebra, bony pelvis &jointsClinical Anatomy     103 hrs.

Regional Anatomy: INFERIOR EXTREMITY CARD (DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
  Students will be able to: demonstrate muscles attachments and identify vessels & nerves of different parts of inferior extremitydemonstrate the boundary and identify the contents of femoral triangle, adductor canal, popliteal fossa & sole of the footdemonstrate the features of bones, joints, & muscles acting on jointsexplain the Venous drainage, lymphatic drainage, & dermatome of inferior extremitycorrelate the clinical conditions associated with structures (nerves, vessels, bones, joints) of inferior extremity     Front and medial side of the thighGluteal region and back of the thighFront of the leg and dorsum of the footLateral side, medial side and back of the leg including the popliteal fossa sole of the footBones & joints of lower limbArches of the footRemoval of lower limbBlood supply, lymphatic drainage, cutaneous innervation & dermatome of inferior extremityClinical Anatomy   41 hrs.

Regional Anatomy: HEAD & NECK CARD (DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Learning Objectives   Contents   Teaching hours
Students will be able to: identify and demonstrate the different parts of bones of head & neck , joints, & muscles acting on jointsstate the gross features & attachments of skull bones including base of skull & cervical vertebrae.demonstrate movements of joints of Head & Neckdemonstrate the layers of scalp identify the contents of temporal regiondemonstrate the boundary of face and identify muscles and sensory supply of faceidentify parotid gland & duct & explain the structures within the parotid glanddemonstrate the boundary and identify contents of anterior triangle, posterior triangle, sub- occipital triangle & sub-mandibular regiondemonstrate the boundary and identify contents of mouth cavitydemonstrate the gross features & nerve supply of tongueexplain Auditory pathway ( VIII – cranial nerve)demonstrate the parts of pharynx with their extension & muscles of pharynx the walls of nose and paranasal air sinuses the extension, cartilages & muscles of larynx identify structures present in the internal surface of the larynxdemonstrate the region of vertebral column and attachments of muscles of the backdemonstrate the different parts of external, middle & internal Earcorrelate important clinical conditions associated with structures in Head & Neck (Thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, air sinuses, Larynx, scalp, ear, face etc.)   Bones & joints of head and neck   Scalp and temporal region   Face and orbitAnterior triangle and submandibular region including thyroid gland   Posterior triangle   Mouth and tongue   Pharynx   Nose and paranasal sinuses   LarynxVertebral column and deep dissection of the     Organs of hearing and equilibrium.Clinical Anatomy   88 hrs.

Regional Anatomy: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM & EYEBALL CARD (DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
  Students will be able to: demonstratethe boundary & contents of cranial cavity & orbitthe different parts of brain & cranial nerves attached to brainthe layers of meninges- Pia, arachnoid, and durameterexplain the processes of dura & its contentsexplain the blood supply & nerve supply of the meningesdemonstrate the boundary of different lobes of cerebrum, sulci, gyri & important functional areasexplain the blood supply of cerebrum including the formation of Circle Willisdemonstrate the parts & describe the functions & connections ofdiencephalon, pituitary gland, basal nuclei,internal capsule, extra pyramidal system &limbic system, brain stemlocate &describethe nuclei, course, functional components & distribution of cranial nervesthe boundary & parts of ventricles circulation of CSF through ventriclesgross features of spinal cord and its meninges and spinal nerves attached to itthe coats of eyeball & the course of optic nerveexplain Refractive Media explain the effects of lesion and loss of blood supply to different parts of nervous system.   Introduction to the nervous system, cranial cavity and orbit.General examination of the brainSuperficial attachments of cranial nervesmeninges of the brain   Cerebrum.:lobes of cerebrum, sulci gyri & important functional areas blood supply formation of Circle Willis. Diencephalon:Thalamus, hypothalamus, metathalamus, epithalmus and pituitary gland Basal nuclei, internal capsule, extra pyramidal system and limbic system ·        Brain stem and reticular formation Cranial nervesVentricles and cerebrospinal fluid Spinal cord & spinal nerves   Visual apparatus including the eyeball   Clinical Anatomy.     40 hrs

Cell Biology & Histology Tutorial & Practical (Card I)

  Learning Objectives   Contents   Teaching hours
  Students will be able to: demonstrate different parts of microscope & how to handle it   state the principles of tissue preparation     explain cell division   identify different types of tissue on slide under microscope     Microscope: Parts & how to handle Principles of different types of microscopy   Principles of tissue preparation and staining: Fixation, embedding, sectioning & routine staining Cell and cell divisionEpithelium: Simple squamous, cuboidal, columnar Pseudo stratified Stratified squamous, cuboidal Stratified columnar Transitional Connective tissue:: General, special ,bone, cartilage Muscular tissue: Smooth, skeletal & cardiac muscle Nervous tissue in general     17 hrs.

Cell Biology & Histology Tutorial & Practical (Card II)

Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
  Students will be able to identify different structures of the following systems on slides under microscope: Respiratory system. Cardiovascular system Digestive system and & associated Glands. Urinary system Male reproductive system and associated glands female reproductive system and associated glands   Respiratory system Larynx, trachea, bronchial tree and Lung Large artery, medium sized artery, large veinDigestive system & associated glands Tongue, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine & large intestine (including vermiform appendix) Liver and gall bladder, Pancreas Urinary system Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethrae Male reproductive system and associated glands Testis, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate Female reproductive system and associated glands Ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, vaginaMammary gland , placenta   17hrs.

Cell Biology & Histology Tutorial & Practical (Card III)

Learning Objectives Contents Teaching hours
  Students will be able to identify following structures on slides under microscope: Lymphatic system Salivary glands Nervous system Endocrine system Special sense organs Skin   Lymphatic system Lymph node, tonsil, spleen & thymus   Exocrine glands (salivary glands}Nervous system spinal cord, cerebrum, cerebellum, peripheral nerve (including the optic nerve) Endocrine gland (Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal and Islet’s of LangerhansSpecial sense organs: Eyeball (cornea, retina), internal earThick skin & thin skin   18 hrs.

Integrated Teaching in Anatomy

  • Integrated teaching program on a particular topic/organ /organ system should be organized in each term. The topics which are related should be prepared after discussion with the teachers of Anatomy/Physiology/Biochemistry. The horizontal process of Integrated teaching program will help the students to have a simultaneous views of different aspects of Anatomical/Physiological/Biochemical details of a particular topic/organ /organ system.
TOPICS LEARNING  OBJECTIVES TERM DEPARTMENT
1. Cell Students will be able to describe the structure & functions of different constituents of cellexplain membrane transport, membrane potentials & action potentialsstate the composition of ECF & ICF compartments I Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
2.Heart Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of heartdescribe the types & regulation of blood pressuredescribe the physiologic basis of shock managementdescribe & interpret the cardiac markers I Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
3.Lung Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of lungdescribe the spirometry & its clinical applicationdescribe the regulation of respiration I Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
4. Hepatobiliary system Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of hepatobiliary systeminterprete the liver function test & explain its clinical importanceexplain the role of liver in metabolism II Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
TOPICS LEARNING  OBJECTIVES TERM DEPARTMENT
5.Kidney Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of kidneyexplain the mechanism of urine formationinterpret e kidney function testexplain the renal chemistry in relation to water, electrolytes & acid base balance II Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
6.Pancreas Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of pancreasdescribe hormones of islets of Langerhan’ sdescribe functions ,mechanism of action & regulations of secretion of insulindescribe causes & consequences of hyper & hypoglycaemiadescribe laboratory diagnosis of diabetes mellitus II Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
7.Adrenal gland Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of adrenal glanddescribe the functions ,mechanism of action & regulation of secretion of adrenal hormonesdescribe hypo & hyperadrenalism III Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
8. Thyroid & Parathyroid gland Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of thyroid & parathyroid glanddescribe the hormones of thyroid & parathyroid gland : biosynthesis , transport functions ,mechanism of action & regulation of secretiondescribe hypo & hyperthyroidismdescribe tetanydescribe thyroid function tests & their interpretation III Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
9. Pituitary gland Students will be able to describe the gross anatomy & clinical anatomy of pituitary glanddescribe Hormones of pituitary gland : functions ,mechanism of action & regulation of secretiondescribe Hypo & hyperpituitarism III Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry
TOPICS LEARNING  OBJECTIVES TERM DEPARTMENT
10. Sensory system & Motor system Students will be able to describe receptors ,synapse & sensory pathwaysdescribe the pyramidal  and extrapyramidal systemdescribe cerebellum, basal nuclei & their disorderdescribe the different types of neurotransmitter & their functions III Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry

Teaching – Learning & Assessment Methods

Teaching / Learning Method Teaching Aid In Course Assessment Summative Assessment
  Lecture   Computer   & multimedia Slide projector, overhead projector (OHP), black board white and different colour chalk, white board and different colour white board markers. Item Examination: Oral, Practical   Card Completion Examination   Term Examinations: Written, Oral, Practical     Preparation of exercise book WrittenOralPractical
Regional Anatomy: Demonstration & Tutorial   Cadavers, prosected parts, bones, viscera and other specimens of body parts, models, charts, black board white and different colour chalk, white board and different colour white board markers, Illustration sheets/posters, OHP, video, slide projector, computer with CD ROM, radiographs & other images.
Regional Anatomy: Dissection Cadavers, prosected parts, specimens and bones, black board white and different colour chalk, white board and different colour white board markers, Computer   & multimedia.
  Cell   Biology   &   Histology Tutorial & Practical Microscope, slide projector, black board white and different colour chalk, white board and different colour white board markers, OHP, Illustration sheets (including photomicrographs & drawings)/posters, video projector, computer with CD ROM drive

Assessment in Anatomy

Component Marks Total Marks
Formative assessment 10+10 20
WRITTEN EXAMINATION   20       180
paper-I–              MCQ
SAQ 70
paper-II–            MCQ 20
SAQ 70
ORAL EXAMINATION (Structured)   75   150
Hard part
Soft part 75
PRACTICAL EXAMINATION Soft part    
Objective structured practical Exam (OSPE) 30     75
Dissection 30
Anatomy of Radiology and imaging 15
Hard part   30     75
OSPE
Lucky slides 20
Living Anatomy 20
Practical Khata 05
Grand Total 500
  • There will be separate Answer Scripts for  SAQ
  • Pass marks 60 % in each of theoretical, oral and practical examination

Time allocation in Anatomy Lecture & Review – 115 hours

Term General Anatomy Hours Cell Biology Hours General Histology Hours Systemic Histology Hours General Embryology Hours Systemic Embryology Hours Neuro anatomy Hours. Human Genetics Hours. Total Hours
First Term 12 06 08 02 13 01 04 46
Second Term 02 14 05 17 02 40
Third Term 02 02 07 18 29
Grand  Total Hours (Class +Exam) 12 06 12 18 18 24 21 04 115

Cell Biology & Histology – Tutorial & Practical – 52 hours

Term Class Hours (Including Item Exam hrs) Card Completion Exam Hours Total Hours
First Term (Card I) 15 2 17
Second Term (Card II) 15 2 17
Third Term (Card III) 16 2 18
Grand Total Hours 46 6 52
  Term   Cards   Dissection & Demonstration   Tutorial Review   Part Completion Examination Hours   Total Hours
  Living (surface) Anatomy Anatomy of radiology & Images   Clinical Anatomy
First Term Thorax 32 6 2 3 06 49
Superior Extremity 33 3 2 3 01 42
Second Term Abdomen 83 6 2 6 06 103
Inferior Extremity 33 3 2 2 01 41
Third Term Head, Neck 74 4 2 3 05 88
Central Nervous system and Eye ball 35 00 1 3 01 40
Grand Total Hours   290 22 11 20 20 363

ACADEMIC CALENDAR for ANATOMY

Class/Exam Hours(i ncludin g Class exams hrs) First Term (14 working weeks) Evaluation & leave  04 weeks   Second Term   Evaluation & leave  04  weeks Third Term (14 working weeks) 2.Evaluation & preparatory leave for first prof–08 weeks 1.Evaluation & preparatory leave for third term;03 weeks
(15 working weeks)
 
 
     
   
  Lecture and Review   115   General Anatomy-12 hrsCell Biology -06 hrsHuman Genetics – 04 hrsGeneral Histology-08 hrSystemic Histology – 02 hrsGeneral Embryology – 13 hrsNeuroanatomy – 01 hrs   General Histology-02 hrSystemic Histology – 14 hrsGeneral Embryology – 05 hrsSystemic Embryology- 17 hrsNeuroanatomy – 02 hrs   General histology – 02 hrSystemic Histology -02 hrsSystemic Embryology – 07 hrsNeuroanatomy – 18hrs
         
Tutorial/ Review   53 Thorax Card – 11 hrs Sup. Ext. Card – 08 hrs Abdomen Card – 14 hrs Inf. Ext. Card – 7 hrs   Head & Neck Card –9 hrs C.N.S & Eyeball – 04 hrs
  Dissection   290 Thorax Card – 32 hrs Sup Ext Card- 33 hrs   Abdomen Card – 83hrs Inf. Ext. Card – 33 hrs   Head & Neck Card – 74 hrs C.N.S & Eyeball Card – 35 hrs
Card Completion Exam   20 Thorax Card- 06hrs Sup Ext. Card- 01hrs Abdomen Card– 06 hrs Inf. Ext. Card – 01 hrs Head & Neck Card –05 hrs C.N.S & Eyeball Card – 01 hrs
Cell      Biology &        Histology- Tutorial/ Practical   52   Card I – 17 hrs   Card II – 17 hrs   Card III – 18 hrs
Grand Total 530  

N.B. –  Card completion examinations  will be arranged on discussion with other departments (Physiology,  Biochemistry)

Prerequisite for 1st  professional examination

  1. A Student must pass all term exam before appearing 1st professional exam.
  2. Class attendance must be 75 %

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL   COLLEGE THORAX CARD

  Card no.     Cadaver no.     Total marks     Pass marks      

(ITEM EXAM FOLLOWING DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Year    
  Session  
  Roll No.  
  Batch  
 
  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
Part for dissection (item) Date of beginning Date of examination Marks obtained Remarks and Signature of the Lecturer
1.Thoracic wall, Intercostal space, thoracic cavity and mediastinum.        
2.Bones and joints of the thorax        
3.Heart with pericardium.        
4.Lung, Pleura , trachea and bronchus.        
5.The Diaphragm & oesophagus        
6.Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics of the thorax.        
7. Clinical  & Functional anatomy        
8.   Living Anatomy.        
9.Anatomy of Radiology & Images        
  No. of attendance in the practical classes of the card   Out of  
  Mark obtained  
  Remarks  
  Signature of the Lecturer  
  Signature of Head of the Department  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL  COLLEGE

SUPERIOR EXTREMITY CARD

(ITEM EXAM FOLLOWING DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Year       Card no.  
  Session     Cadaver no.  
  Roll No.     Total marks  
  Batch     Pass marks  
  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
 
Part for dissection (item) Date of beginning Date of examination Marks obtained Remarks and Signature of the Lecturer
1.  Bones and introduction to the joints of the superior extremity        
2. Pectoral region with mammary gland.        
3. Axilla.        
4. Superficial dissection of the upper limb, back and scapular region.        
5. Front of the arm , forearm & palm        
6 .Back of the arm, forearm & dorsum of the hand.        
7.  Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics of the  superior extremity        
8. Removal of the limb; shoulder joint, acromioclavicular joint, elbow joint,wrist joint        
9. Clinical  & Functional Anatomy.        
10. Living Anatomy        
11. Anatomy of Radiology & Images        
  No. of attendance in the practical classes of the card   Out of  
  Mark obtained  
  Remarks  
  Signature of the Lecturer  
  Signature of Head of the Department  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL COLLEGE

ABDOMEN CARD

(ITME EXAM FOLLOWING DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Year       Card no.  
  Session     Cadaver no.  
  Roll No.     Total marks  
  Batch     Pass marks  
 
  Name of the student  
  Period of placement   From     To :  
    :
Part for dissection (item) Date of beginning Date of examination Mark obtained Remarks and Signature of the Lecturer
1.Bones and joints of abdomen & pelvis        
2.Anterior wall of the abdomen with hernial region.        
3.Stomach, abdominal part of the oesophagus; coeliac trunk        
4.Duodenum, pancreas and spleen.        
5.The mesentery and mesenteric vessels, jejunum and ileum.        
6.Large intestine.        
7. Rectum and anal canal        
8..Liver with the biliary apparatus including gall bladder; portal vein.        
9.Kidneys, suprarenal gland, ureters. urinary bladder ,Urethrae        
10.Muscles, blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall.        
11.Muscles, blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves of the pelvis        
12.Ovaries, uterus, uterine tubes,vagina,female external genital organs and perineum.        
13.Perineum pelvic diaphragm.urogenital diaphragm,perineal  pouches,ischiorectal  fossa        
14.Vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate,testes and male external genital organs.        
15.Clinical & Functional anatomy        
16.Living Anatomy.        
17Anatomy of Radiology & Images        
  No. of attendance in the practical classes of the card   Out of  
  Mark obtained  
Remarks  
Signature of the Lecturer  
Signature of Head of the Department  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL    COLLEGE

INFERIOR EXTREMITY CARD

  Card no.     Cadaver no.     Total marks     Pass marks      

(ITEM EXAM FOLLOWING DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Year    
  Session  
  Roll No.  
  Batch  
 
  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
Part for dissection (item) Date of beginning Date of examination Marks obtained Remarks and Signature of the Lecturer
1. Bones and introduction to the joints of the inferior extremity        
2. Front and medial side of the thigh.        
3. Gluteal region and back of the thigh.        
4. Hip joint and removal of the lower limb.        
5. Front of the leg and dorsum of the foot.        
6. Lateral side, medial side and back of the leg including the popliteal fossa.,Sole of the foot        
7.  Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics of the  inferior extremity        
8. Knee, tibiofibular joints and ankle joint        
9. Joints and arches of the foot.        
10. Clinical & Functional Anatomy.        
11. Living Anatomy        
12. Anatomy of Radiology & Images        
  No. of attendance in the practical classes of the card   Out of  
  Mark obtained  
  Remarks  
  Signature of the Lecturer  
  Signature of Head of the Department  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL    COLLEGE

HEAD AND NECK CARD

(ITEM EXAM FOLLOWING DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
Part for dissection (item) Date of beginning Date of examination Mark obtained Remarks and Signature of the Lecturer
1.   Bones of head and neck.        
2.  Joints of head and neck.        
3.  Scalp and temporal region.        
4.  Face and orbit.        
5.  Anterior triangle and submandibular region.        
6.   Posterior triangle.        
7.   Mouth and tongue.        
8.   Pharynx.        
9.   Nose and Paranasal sinuses.        
10. Larynx.        
11. Vertebral column and deep dissection of the back.        
12. Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics of the Head & Neck        
13. Exocrine & Endocrine Glands of Head & neck        
14. Organs of hearing and equilibrium.        
15. Clinical & Functional Anatomy.        
16. Living Anatomy.        
17. Anatomy of Radiology & Images.        
  No. of attendance in the practical classes of the card   Out of  
  Mark obtained  
 
Remarks  
Signature of the Lecturer  
Signature of Head of the Department  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL    COLLEGE

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND EYEBALL CARD

(ITEM EXAM FOLLOWING DISSECTION, DEMONSTRATION & TUTORIAL)

  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
Part for dissection (item) Date of beginning Date of examination Mark obtained Remarks and Signature of the Lecturer
1.   General introduction to the nervous system, cranial cavity and orbit.        
2.   General examination of the brain with its nerve attachments and meninges.        
3.   Cranial nerve – nuclei, course. functional components, supply & lesions        
4.   Cerebrum.        
5.   Diencephalon        
6.   Basal ganglia, internal capsule, extra pyramidal system and limbic system.        
7.   Brain stem, reticular formation & Cerebellum        
8.   Ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid.        
9.   Spinal cord & Spinal nerve        
10. Visual apparatus including the eyeball.        
11. Clinical & Functional Anatomy        
12. Living Anatomy.        
13. Anatomy of Radiology & Images        
  No. of attendance in the practical classes of the card   Out of  
  Mark obtained  
  Remarks  
  Signature of the Lecturer  
  Signature of Head of the Department  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

……………………MEDICAL  COLLEGE HISTOLOGY CARD NO. I

  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
Item Date of beginning Date of examination Marks obtained Remarks and Signature
1. Study of microscope.        
2. Principles   of    tissue    preparation staining (routine) and        
3. Cell and cell division        
4. Epithelium        
5. Connective tissue-General        
6. Connective tissue-Special        
7. Muscular tissue        
8. Nervous tissue in general        
  Total No. of attendance   Out of  
  Marks obtained  
  Remarks  
  Signature of the Lecturer  
  Signature of the Prof. of Anatomy  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL  COLLEGE

HISTOLOGY CARD NO. II

  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
  Item Date of beginning Date of examination Marks obtained Remarks and Signature
1.    Cardiovascular system        
2.   Respiratory system        
3.    Digestive system & associated glands        
4.  Urinary system        
5.  Male reproductive system        
6.  Female reproductive system        
  Total No. of attendance   Out of  
  Marks obtained  
  Remarks  
  Signature of the Lecturer  
  Signature of the Prof. of Anatomy  

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

………………………..MEDICAL  COLLEGE

HISTOLOGY CARD NO. III

  Name of the student  
  Period of placement From :   To :  
Item Date of beginning Date of examination Marks obtained Remarks and Signature
1. Lymphatic System        
2. Exocrine Glands in general        
3. Endocrine Glands        
4. Nervous system        
5. Special sense organs        
6. Skin –Thick & Thin skin        
  Total No. of attendance   Out of  
  Marks obtained  
  Remarks  
  Signature of the Lecturer  
  Signature of the Prof. of Anatomy